Television in the United Kingdom started in 1936 as a public service which was free of advertising. Currently, the United
Kingdom has a collection of free-to-air, free-to-view and subscription services over a variety of distribution media,
through which there are over 480 channels[nb 1] for consumers as well as on-demand content. There are six main
channel owners who are responsible for most material viewed. There are 27,000 hours of domestic content produced a
year at a cost of £2.6 billion.[nb 2] Since 24 October 2012, all television broadcasts in the United Kingdom have been in
a digital format, following the end of analogue transmissions in Northern Ireland. Digital content is delivered via
terrestrial, satellite and cable, as well as over IP. As of 2003, 53.2% of households watch through terrestrial, 31.3%
through satellite, and 15.6% through cable.
Not to be confused with Free-to-view.
Free-to-air (FTA) are television (TV) and radio services broadcast in clear (unencrypted) form, allowing any person with
the appropriate receiving equipment to receive the signal and view or listen to the content without requiring a
subscription, other ongoing cost, or one-off fee (e.g., Pay-per-view). In the traditional sense, this is carried on terrestrial
radio signals and received with an antenna.
FTA also refers to channels and broadcasters providing content for which no subscription is expected, even though they
may be delivered to the viewer/listener by another carrier for which a subscription is required, e.g., Cable television, the
Internet, or satellite. These carriers may be mandated (or OPT) in some geographies to deliver FTA channels even if a
premium subscription is not present (providing the necessary equipment is still available), especially where FTA
channels are expected to be used for emergency broadcasts, similar to the 1-1-2 (112) emergency service provided by
mobile phone operators and manufacturers.
Free-to-view (FTV) is, generally, available without subscription but is digitally encoded and may be restricted
Free-to-air is often used for international broadcasting, making it something of a video equivalent to shortwave radio.
Most FTA retailers list free-to-air channel guides and content available in North America for free-to-air use.
Although commonly described as free, the cost of free-to-air services is met through various means:
Tax payer funding
with an enforced levy of a licence fee for transmission and production costs (e.g., the BBC)
with a voluntary donation for local transmission and production costs (e.g., PBS)
with commercial advertising for transmission and production costs and surplus revenues returned to the government (e.
g., CBC Television/Télévision de Radio-Canada in Canada, SBS in Australia and TVNZ in New Zealand)
Consumer products and services where part of the cost goes toward television advertising and sponsorship (in the case
of Japanese television broadcasters like TV Asahi and TV Tokyo which rely heavily on sponsorship, similar to Philippine
broadcasters like ABS-CBN, TV5 and GMA)
Africa and Middle East
Up until 2012, Israel had several free-to-air channels, the major ones rating-wise: Channel 2, Channel 10, and Channel
1. The other ones were Channel 23, Channel 33, and Channel 99.
In 1971, the SABC was finally allowed to introduce a television service. Initially, the proposal was for two television
channels, one in English and Afrikaans, aimed at white audiences, and another, known as TV Bantu, aimed at black
viewers. However, when television was finally introduced, there was only one channel with airtime divided evenly
between English and Afrikaans, alternating between the two languages. Test transmissions in Johannesburg began on 5
May 1975, followed in July by ones in Cape Town and Durban. Nationwide services finally commenced on 5 January
In common with most of Western Europe, South Africa used the PAL system for colour television, being only the second
terrestrial television service in sub-Saharan Africa to launch with a colour-only service, Zanzibar in Tanzania having
introduced the first such service in 1973. (Tanzania itself did not establish a television service until the early 1990s,
similarly concerned about the expense and perceived threat to cultural norms.) The Government, advised by SABC
technicians, took the view that colour television would have to be available so as to avoid a costly migration from black-
and-white broadcasting technology.
Initially, the TV service was funded entirely through a licence fee as in the UK, charged at R36. However, advertising
began on 1 January 1978.
On 1 January 1982, two services were introduced, TV2 broadcasting in Zulu and Xhosa and TV3 broadcasting in Sotho
and Tswana, aimed at a black urban audience. In 1985, a new service called TV4 was introduced, carrying sports and
entertainment programming, using the channel shared by TV2 and TV3, which ended transmissions at 9:30 pm. In 1992,
TV2, TV3 and TV4 were combined into a new service called CCV (Contemporary Community Values). A third channel
was introduced known as TSS, or Topsport Surplus, Topsport being the brand name for the SABC's sport coverage, but
this was replaced by NNTV (National Network TV), an educational, non-commercial channel, in 1994.
The main channel, now called TV1, was divided evenly between English and Afrikaans, as before. It also became
available in Walvis Bay, an enclave of South Africa in Namibia, which was itself then under South African administration,
with a live feed of the channel broadcast via Intelsat being retransmitted on a local low-power repeater.
In 1986, the SABC's monopoly was challenged by the launch of a subscription-based service known as M-Net, backed
by a consortium of newspaper publishers on 1 October. However, as part of its licensing restrictions, it could not
broadcast news programmes, which were still the preserve of the SABC, although M-Net started broadcasting a current
affairs programme called Carte Blanche in 1988. As the state-controlled broadcaster, the SABC was accused of bias
towards the apartheid regime, giving only limited coverage to opposition politicians.
In Hong Kong, the largest and most dominant television channel, Television Broadcasts Limited, was the first free-to-air
commercial television channel when it commenced broadcasting on 19 November 1967. It may also well be among the
oldest and first station to broadcast over-the-air in East and Southeast Asia.
India & South Asia
Around 600 FTA television channels and 180 Radio Channel are broadcast from ku-band and c-band transponders on
the INSAT-4B and GSAT-15 satellite covering India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Sri Lanka and parts of
Afghanistan, China, and Myanmar. In India, the channels are marketed as DD Direct Plus/ DD Free Dish by
Doordarshan, India's national broadcaster and other Indian private broadcaster ABS Free Dish from the ABS2 satellite,
one can receive free-to-air regional TV channels using small DTH antenna and freetoair set-top box.
In Korea, KBS, MBC (the 2 main public broadcasters), SBS (privately owned, but available for free to viewers), and EBS
(including both TV and radio) are the free-to-air broadcasting stations. They dominate more than 80% of advertisement
profits, according to the recent survey from the agency[ambiguous]. Due to the recent government's[which?] decision,
digital television service for all free-to-air networks would be scheduled before the year 2012, followed by the end of
analog television broadcasting.
European countries have a tradition of most television services being free to air. Germany, in particular, receives in
excess of 100 digital satellite TV channels free to air. Approximately half of the television channels on SES Astra's 19.2°
east and 28.2° east satellite positions, and Eutelsat's Hot Bird (13° east) are free-to-air.
A number of European channels which one might expect to be broadcast free-to-air - including many countries' national
terrestrial broadcasters - do not do so via satellite for copyright reasons. (Rights to purchase programs for free-to-air
broadcast, especially via satellite, are often higher in price than for encrypted broadcast.) The lack of FTA among public
broadcasters are prevalent in countries whose broadcasters tend to use subtitles for foreign language programmes;
although Spain's two public domestic channels, La Una and La Dos, are also encrypted despite dubbed foreign
programmes being the norm in Spain. However, these channels usually provide a scheme to offer free, but encrypted,
viewing with free-to-view broadcasts. Certain programming on Italy's RAI, and the majority of Dutch channels are covered
by such schemes (although in the case of RAI some programming is transmitted without encryption where there are no
copyright issues). In Austria, the main national networks broadcast free-to-view via satellite; however, all regional and
some smaller channels are transmitted free-to-air, and the national public broadcaster, ORF, offers a special free-to-air
channel which airs selected programming without (i.e. those without copyright issues) via satellite all over Europe.
As Germany and Austria speak the same language and use the same satellite, Austrian viewers are able to receive
about 120 free German-speaking channels from both countries.
In general, all satellite radio in Europe is free to air, but the more conventional broadcast systems in use mean that
SiriusXM style in-car reception is not possible.
Cable and satellite distribution allow many more channels to carry sports, movies and specialist channels which are not
broadcast as FTA. The viewing figures for these channels are generally much lower than the FTA channels.
Various European countries broadcast a large number of channels via free-to-air terrestrial, generally as an analog
PAL/SECAM transmission, digital DVB-T/T2 or a combination of the two.
In Denmark, nine channels are as of 2018 free-to-air, distributed via 18 main transmitter sites and 30 smaller, auxiliary
transmitters. The nine channels (DR1, DR2, DR3, DR Ultra, DR Ramasjang, DR K, Folketinget, TV2 Regionerne, and
sign language/local programme) come in two DVB-T2 MUXes.
In France, there are twenty six national television channels (MPEG-4 HD video) and 41 local television channels
broadcast free-to-air via the TNT DVB-T service.
In Germany there are various free-to-air DVB-T services available, the number of which varies by region. Das Erste,
ZDF, ZDFneo, ZDFinfo, 3sat, Arte, KiKA and Phoenix are available throughout the country, in addition to at least one
region-dependent channel which is provided by the regional ARD member. Additionally, ARD's EinsFestival, EinsPlus
and tagesschau24 are variously available in some parts of the country, and various commercial channels are available in
In the Republic of Ireland, there are nine television channels and 11 radio channels broadcast free-to-air via the DVB-T
Saorview service. Analog PAL versions of some of the channels were also broadcast until October 24, 2012, when all
analogue television broadcasting was shut down.
Main article: television in the Netherlands
In the Netherlands, 3 national public television channels NPO 1, NPO 2 and NPO 3, and 7 national public radio channels
broadcast free-to-air via the DVB-T Digitenne service. The television and radio channels of the regional public
broadcasters are also free-to-air via the DVB-T service.
In the UK, around 108 free-to-air television channels and 30 free-to-air radio channels are available terrestrially via the
Freeview DVB-T service. Seven HD channels are also broadcast via a public service broadcast multiplex and a
commercial multiplex, both DVB-T2.
The informal term "council telly" is sometimes used for free-to-air television in the UK, evoking a basic service accessible
There are a number of competing systems in use. Early adopters used C-band dishes several feet in diameter to receive
analog microwave broadcasts, and later digital microwave broadcasts using the 3.7-4.2 GHz band. Today, although
large C-band dishes can still receive some content, the 11.7-12.2 GHz Ku band is also used. Ku-band signals can be
received using smaller dishes, often as small as under a meter (3 feet, 3 inches) in diameter, allowing FTA satellite to be
picked up from smaller spaces such as apartment balconies (note, however, that these dishes are not quite as small as
those commonly used for commercial services such as Dish Network, DirecTV, Bell ExpressVu, Shaw Direct, etc. Dishes
intended for those services may not deliver an adequate signal on Ku-band). The European-developed DVB-S and DVB-
S2 standards are the most commonly used broadcast methods, with analog transmissions almost completely
discontinued as of mid-2014.
Most of these signals are carried by US satellites. There is little or no free Canadian DVB-S content available to users of
medium-size dishes as much of the available Ku-band satellite bandwidth is occupied by pay-TV operators Shaw Direct
and Bell TV, although larger C-band dishes can pick up some content. FTA signals may be scattered across multiple
satellites, requiring a motor or multiple LNBs to receive everything. This differs from Europe, where FTA signals are
commonly concentrated on a few specific satellites.
Another difference between North American FTA and FTA in most of the rest of the world is that in North America, very
few of the available signals are actually intended for home viewers or other end-users. Instead, they are generally
intended for reception by local television stations, cable system headends, or other commercial users. While it is
generally thought to be legal for home viewers to view such transmissions as long as they are not encrypted, this means
that there are several unique challenges to viewing FTA signals, challenges not present in other areas of the world.
Among these are:
No schedule information is provided with most of the signals, therefore satellite receivers cannot show a proper
electronic program guide (EPG).
Because many of these broadcasts are essentially point-to-point transmissions, the originators often do not follow any
international standards when setting various identification fields in the data stream. This causes issues with receivers
and software designed for use in other parts of the world, as they may assume that if a channel contains the same ID
information as another channel, those are duplicate channels. This may be a valid assumption in other parts of the world,
but is almost never valid for North American FTA signals. When such an assumption is made, during a "blind scan" the
receiver or software will often fail to correctly insert one or more channels into its database, or it may overwrite previously
scanned valid channels (including other channels on the same satellite) with invalid information picked up from another,
more recently scanned channel. If the end user does not understand what is happening, they may assume that the
receiver cannot receive certain channels or that it is defective, yet if the correct data for those channels can be manually
entered, those channels may become receivable. This problem can be mitigated if receivers can be set to ignore
channels that appear to be duplicates during a "blind scan", except when such channels are on exactly the same satellite
and same transponder frequency (as might occur if the user rescans a previously-scanned satellite).
Channels tend to come and go, or change transmission formats, often without any prior notice other than to their
intended recipients. This means that a working channel could suddenly disappear without warning, and may need to be
rescanned to become receivable again, or it may be gone permanently.
Channels that are currently FTA can become scrambled (encrypted) with no advance warning. A few channels tend to go
back and forth between being "in the clear" (unscrambled) to scrambled at various times, but in most cases, once a
channel is scrambled it stays scrambled.
Historically, it has appeared that broadcasters are more likely to scramble their signals when they become aware that
home viewers and other "unauthorized" viewers are watching their signals. Therefore, those who know what signals are
available may sometimes be reluctant to share that information in open forums. While sites exist that attempt to list
currently viewable FTA signals, most of them are incomplete or do not contain current information. Such sites typically
rely on reports of changes by viewers, and if viewers are reluctant to report new FTA signals for fear they might
disappear, it becomes more of a challenge for such sites to maintain up-to-date listings.
What some would consider the most desirable signals, e.g. feeds from broadcast networks, are primarily only available
on C-band, which requires a large dish (usually at least 6 feet/1.8 meters in diameter or more, although a few hobbyists
have found it possible to receive some C-band signals using smaller dishes and high quality LNBs). Also some of those
signals utilize high-bitrate formats that cannot be received by many older receivers, even if those receivers are capable
of receiving digital signals, and such signals may require a larger than usual dish for adequate reception. In many areas,
local zoning laws and/or homeowner associations forbid the placement of a large dish, therefore such dishes have fallen
out of favor since commercial satellite services became widely available. Therefore, very few people have the capability
to receive the C-band broadcasts. Another issue is that properly aiming a C-band dish is not something that a typical end-
user would know how to do, since it tends to be a somewhat complex procedure (especially when a moveable dish is
used with the intention of tracking the visible satellite arc in order to receive multiple satellites), and many of the installers
that knew how to set up and correctly aim a C-band dish have exited the business.
While equipment and software is becoming available that allows home users to set up a backend system that can deliver
received over-the-air ATSC signals to several frontend systems (for example, a HDHomeRun, VBox Home TV Gateway
or similar TV tuner, used with MythTV or TVHeadEnd), a similar system for receiving FTA signals is considerably more
difficult to set up. While PCI/PCIe tuner cards and USB tuners for DVB-S and DVB-S2 are available, there are often
issues with drivers, or the cards may simply not be compatible with the backend software in use. Therefore, setting up
such a system for FTA satellite reception tends to require considerably more technical knowledge, and a willingness to
work through issues, than setting up such a system for receiving terrestrial signals.
Some syndicated programming is being sent as data, similar to the way a video file might be sent over the Internet. This
means that the programming is not sent in a format that can be viewed in real time, as it is being received. Instead, the
data must be captured to a storage device and decoded for later use. Traditional satellite receivers and even many PC
tuner cards are not capable of receiving these signals, and even if you have a card capable of receiving such signals,
you also need special software to find such data streams and when one is found, to extract the data stream and save it.
The largest groups of end-users for Ku-band free-to-air signals were initially the ethnic-language communities, as often
free ethnic-language programming would be sponsored by Multilingual American Communities and their broadcasters.
Depending on language and origin of the individual signals, North American ethnic-language TV is a mix of pay-TV, free-
to-air and DBS operations. Today, many American broadcasters send a multitude of programming channels in many
languages, spanning many new channels, so they can get National support, which ultimately leads to carriage by cable
systems, to additionally support the high costs of broadcasting signals in this way.
Nevertheless, free-to-air satellite TV is a viable addition to home video systems, not only for the reception of specialized
content but also for use in locations where terrestrial ATSC over-the-air reception is incomplete and additional channels
Australia has five major free-to-air networks: Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC), Seven Network, Nine Network,
Network Ten, and Special Broadcasting Service (SBS). Traditionally each network had only a single channel in a
geographic area, though with the advent of digital television each network now has SD multichannels 7TWO, 7mate,
7flix, 7food network, 9Go!, 9Gem, 9Life, 10 Bold, 10 Peach, SBS Viceland, SBS World Movies and SBS Food
respectively, and one HD networks simulcasting ABC HD, 7HD, 9HD, 10 HD and SBS HD respectively. With the
exception of SBS, each commercial broadcaster also has one SD datacasting channel: RACING.COM, TVSN and Spree
TV respectively; SBS instead broadcasts NITV free-to-air. The ABC is exempt from the policy limiting the number of
multichannels, and currently runs three SD channels ABC, ABC Comedy, ABC ME, ABC News, and a primary channel
which is simulcast on both analogue and digital. ABC and SBS channels are available across Australia; outside the major
capital cities, regional affiliates provide channels that are essentially identical to the metropolitan commercial channels. In
addition, community television provides one channel in some major cities.
Australia's two main public broadcasters, the ABC and SBS, along with the digital-only multichannels ABC Comedy, ABC
ME and SBS Viceland, are both available free-to-air on the Optus D1 satellite. Viewers in remote parts of Australia could
also access Seven Central and Imparja Television, or WIN WA and GWN7 in Western Australia, through the DVB-S free-
to-view Optus Aurora service, which was replaced in December 2013 with the DVB-S2 free-to-view Optus VAST service.
Other satellite-only channels such as Expo, Press TV and Al Jazeera English are available free-to-air on various
Main article: List of free-to-air television stations in New Zealand
New Zealand has a number of FTA broadcasters such as Television New Zealand's TVNZ 1 and TV2, as well as
MediaWorks New Zealand's TV3 and FOUR, Sky Network Television's Prime and the government subsidised the Māori
Television and Te Reo channels.
Four channels, TV One, TV2, TV3, FOUR are also broadcast timeshifted by +1 hour on Freeview and Sky platforms.
A broadcast of parliament and a number of local channels, such as Cue TV are also available. Local stations such as
CTV and Face TV (previously Triangle TV) were free-to-air analogue PAL transmissions prior to CTV migrating to the
free-to-air digital DVB-T service and Face TV's terrestrial free-to-air service shutoff from December 2013.
A digital terrestrial version of Freeview was launched in 2008, which, unlike the analogue and free-to-air satellite options,
supports high-definition broadcasts for TV One, 2 and 3.
In Brazil the main FTA satellite is the Star One C2, it holds approximately 22 C-band analog channels, including all major
networks like Rede Globo, SBT, Record, RedeTV!, Band and others, and 5 digital HDTV channels.+itv 1
In Uruguay the main FTA satellite is the SES 6 Remates/Canal Rural de Argentina